What are the different principles of graphic design

Balance and alignment

Graphic designing is a culmination of various design principles. With concepts like contrast, proximity, repetition, and many more in, it becomes essential that the design is in harmony with all other elements. It is possible by adopting the principle of balance.

Balance is primarily concerned with the equal distribution of visual weights across the Canvas. The only unbalanced monument people find it amusing is learning Tower Paisa. Balance is essential. It creates a feeling of stability for design.

Balancing visual elements can be achieved using asymmetrical are asymmetrical approaches. both approaches aim to deliver a visual balance by aligning the design elements without concentrating on the Focal point. Balance in terms of colors, fonts, imagery enhances both visual and functional aspects of design.

Symmetrical balance is achieved by distributing visual elements orientation basis. Such a balance is characterized by oriented structures, orderly look, and linear stability-qualities like these help achieve a fire look that comprises of equal weights on both sides. Google photos actually use this principle.

Asymmetrical balance is the approach that gives the elements an uneven visual look. This is why it is often characterized by a combination of multiple smaller and larger elements. Pinterest adopts such a look by creating several collages of big and small photos spread across the Canvas.

Radial and crystallographic balance are the other two lesser-known forms of balancing. They are used for uniquely creative projects. Both the arrangements of focus on restructuring the visual elements of a design by centering at a focal point and grids. That is how the different types of balance play an essential role in building visual harmony.


Symmetry is one of the psychological aspects of graphic design. It deals with curating the aesthetics by equating the proportion on both sides of the composition. Symmetry helps evolve a sense of balanced focus, relative positioning. The size of different visual elements has separated a line or central axis on an average canvas plane.

It lays emphasis on the principles of mirroring to arrange the elements on both sides of an axis. perfect symmetry is achieved when the mirroring of elements turns out to be exactly the same on both sides. While its application brings a sense of order and balance to design one must ensure that it isn’t overused as it may lead to dull reception

Symmetry immediately speaks a linear feel structure and balance in a design language. Irrespective of orientation, this gives a balanced look on both sides of a design without over/under weighing each other. McDonald’s, Spiderman and Wonder Woman logos are a perfect example of designs that implements symmetry.

No talk about symmetry is complete without its Pole opposite asymmetry. It occurs when visual elements are distributed unequally. Asymmetry owns qualities like unpredictability, fixed and focal point, variable setups, and dynamic complexity. It is often found in nature. A unique combination of both generates intuitive designs.


Ever thought of the science behind placing visual elements in a design? Proximity easy design principle that takes care of such aspects. It ensures that relative visual elements are clubbed together while keeping unrelated items out of reach.

Proximity helps achieve a firm structure to construct a layout. It ensures that an adequate grouping is established among various visual elements to formulate relationships amongst each other. Stating the address of a home under its name on post letters is among the most common real-life examples of this concept.

Grouping the visual elements in such a way offers a great user experience. It not only allows users for a quick discovery of elements but also offers better readability by paired and relative information. Well-applied proximity with whitespace tends to provide a clear and powerful layout.

Proximity comes of great assistance during the designing of complex branding and application systems. The grouping that comes out of it and ensures that users are able to find what they are looking for quickly. It Honors the golden idea of not making users think too much while browsing.

The administration of visual elements inside a design comes as a courtesy of hierarchy. This principle is responsible for placing elements inside a Canvas or an interface based on their perception by human eyes. Hierarchy comprises principles like alignment, balance, and simplicity.

Contrast plays a major role in achieving hierarchy. Hierarchy deals with different contrasting elements in a design. Our eyes tend to notice dark contrasted elements, at first sight, followed by other elements of reducing contrast. It takes care of this aspect by keeping a design together; improving cross navigation.

A variety of different principles are applied in harmony with the hierarchy. It works on principles like colors, scale, contrast, space form, and alignment. Each hierarchical implementation creates cascading effect concerning the principal it is tied to. This improvises the focal aspect of elements in a design.

Hierarchy’s purpose is to build a structure in design. It does this by creating a directed organization of elements in a canvas. It ensures that a viewer can easily navigate through the information without being perplexed with certain information. Hierarchy is visible in indexes, magazines, and website designs.

Repetition, also known as recurrence, deals with the concept of multiple instances of visual elements in a design. The idea is reliant on ideals of aesthetic details and aims to unify multiple elements into one. It brings consistency to the entire design.

Repetition can be any element, be it a line, color, symbol, format, and various other parts of the design. The process is carried out systematically to bring harmony among various design elements. Moreover, liberalism maintained during progress to build a conspicuous design flow.

Google’s color scheme is one of the best examples that represent the concept of repetition. Be it the logo, buttons, or simply the name, the company has made the 4 color scheme as a part of its design process.

Such a color scheme helps in creating a sense of familiarity among several products. End users are easily able to recognize different products coming from a brand without being confused. Repetition creates an image of aesthetics to expect from a brand, making the users think less in the process.

However, an extensive application of repetition May ruins the design by frustrating the user easily. Extradition may lead to unexpected annoyances, especially in terms of recurring colors this limitation can be kept in check by making use of 1 and 4 point rules. They ensure a clear design that isn’t too dramatic and is bound by quality standards.


Human eyes never miss a striking detail. This is because different elements pique interest and attention to them. This effect is caused due to contrast. Contrast is one of those design principles which is used heavily for highlighting or distinguishing elements.

It occurs whenever a variety of design elements are spread across the Canvas. Be it color, text, are an illustration and paragraph; any unique combination can evoke contrast in the design. Such a philosophy helps in attracting a lot of attention to any design.

In contrast, when teamed up with balance and proximity, can be wonders. This is because such a culmination creates an informative design that is easy to scan. For instance, matching a bold text with normal body text creates a sticking viewing experience. All in all, this offers great readability along with an intuitive aesthetic look.

A design with striking color blends can grab viewers’ attention at a required place on the Canvas. Blue goes well in contrast with yellow black with white. Early iPod commercial posters are an amazing example. Apple uses three different contrasting colors to highlight the iPad in the posters. Right contrast can help in putting out a bold statement.

However, colors are not only the way to implement contrast in a design. It can also be achieved by making use of typography, illustrations, textures, and shapes. Different legible combinations with each other can help to create a good design with appreciative contrast that delights everyone.